It brought an area of 30.53 square kilometres (11.79 sq mi) along the Yangtze River (from Jianghan Road to Hezuo Road today) to become a British Concession and permitted Britain to set up its consulate in the concession. In 1889, Zhang Zhidong was transferred from Viceroy of Liangguang (Guangdong and Guangxi provinces) to Viceroy of Huguang (Hunan and Hubei provinces). During this period, he elucidated the theory of "Chinese learning as the basis, Western learning for application," known as the ti-yong ideal.He set up many heavy industries, founded Hanyang Steel Plant, Daye Iron Mine, Pingxiang Coal Mine and Hubei Arsenal and set up local textile industries, boosting the flourishing modern industry in Wuhan.Because of its key role in domestic transportation, Wuhan was sometimes referred to as "the Chicago of China" by foreign sources.With a 3,500-year-long history, Wuhan is one of the most ancient and civilized metropolitan cities in China.Huang Xing (黃興) would arrive in Wuhan in early November to take command of the revolutionary army.After fierce fighting and heavy casualties, Qing forces seized Hankou and Hanyang.
From October 17 to December 1, the revolutionary army and local volunteers defended the city in the Battle of Yangxia against better armed and more numerous Qing forces commanded by Yuan Shikai.
During the Second Opium War (known in the West as the Arrow War, 1856–1860), the government of the Qing dynasty was defeated by the western powers and signed the Treaties of Tianjin and the Convention of Peking, which stipulated eleven cities or regions (including Hankou) as trading ports.
In December 1858, James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin, High Commissioner to China, led four warships up the Yangtze River in Wuhan to collect the information needed for opening the trading port in Wuhan.
During the Second Sino-Japanese War and following the fall of Nanking in December 1937, Wuhan had become the provisional capital of China's Kuomintang government, and became another focal point of pitched air battles beginning in early 1938 between modern monoplane bomber and fighter aircraft of the Imperial Japanese forces and the Chinese Air Force, which included support from the Soviet Volunteer Group in both planes and personnel, as U. After being taken by the Japanese in late 1938, Wuhan became a major Japanese logistics center for operations in southern China.
In December 1944, the city was largely destroyed by U. firebombing raids conducted by the Fourteenth Air Force.
These districts contained trading firm offices, warehouses, and docking facilities.